The paleolithic or caveman diet is based on consuming berries, nuts, lean grass fed meats and fish – according to a literature review by Katherine Beals from the University of Utah in the USA.
The rules of the Paleo diet are simple: If you can pick it, grow it or kill it, then you can eat it. Proponents of the diet claim the human genes evolved over thousands of tears to optimize metabolism from eating these natural foods. Industrialization changed the human diet suddenly to include the consumption of grains and calorie dense, high fat, processed foods. Food choices also increased dramatically, which prompted over eating and over consumption of unhealthy foods.
Several studies found that the diet reduces abdominal fat, abdominal blood fats, blood pressure, insulin resistance and type two diabetes. Critics of the diet point out that the diets of ancient humans varied greatly from one place to another, so that it is unlikely that metabolically linked genes adapted uniformly. Also, Paleo diet studies are plagued by poor research designs, inadequate dietary controls and poor compliance by the test subjects.
We need more research that is extensive and comprehensive before we go around recommending this to serious athletes or people looking to being active and healthy.